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A rogue planet (also termed an interstellar planet, nomad planet, free-floating planet, orphan planet, wandering planet, starless planet, or sunless planet) is a planetary-mass object that orbits a galactic center directly. Such objects have been ejected from the planetary system in which they formed or have never been gravitationally bound to any star or brown dwarf.[1][2][3] The Milky Way alone may have billions of rogue planets.[4]

Known or possible rogue planetsEdit

The table below lists rogue planets, confirmed or suspected, that have been discovered. It is yet unknown whether these planets were ejected from orbiting a star or else formed on their own as sub-brown dwarfs.Template:Citation needed

Exoplanet Mass (Template:Jupiter mass) Age (Myr) Distance (ly) Status Discovery
OTS 44 ~15 0.5–3 160 Likely a low-mass brown dwarf[5] 1998
S Ori 52 2–8 1–5 1150 Age and mass uncertain; may be a foreground brown dwarf 2000[6]
Cha 110913-773444 5–15 ~2 163 Candidate 2004[7]
UGPS J072227.51-054031.2 5–40 13 Mass uncertain 2010
[MPK2010b] 4450 2–3 325 Candidate 2010[8]
CFBDSIR 2149-0403 4–7 110–130 117–143 Candidate 2012[9]
MOA-2011-BLG-262 ~4 May be a red dwarf 2013
PSO J318.5-22 5.5–8 21–27 80 Confirmed 2013[10]
2MASS J2208+2921 11–13 21–27 115 Candidate; radial velocity needed 2014[11]
WISE J1741-4642 4–21 23–130 Candidate 2014[12]
WISE 0855−0714 3–10 7.1 Age uncertain; may be a brown dwarf 2014[13]
2MASS J12074836–3900043 11–13 7–13 200 Candidate; distance needed 2014[14]
SIMP J2154–1055 9–11 30–50 63 Age questioned[15] 2014[16]
SDSS J111010.01+011613.1 10–12 110–130 63 Confirmed 2015[17]
2MASS J1119–1137 4–8 7–13 94 Candidate; distance needed 2016[18]
WISEA 1147 5–13 7–13 94 Candidate; distance needed 2016[19]

ReferencesEdit

  1. Shostak, Seth (24 February 2005). Orphan Planets: It's a Hard Knock Life. Space.com, 24 February 2005. Retrieved on 5 February 2009 from http://www.space.com/searchforlife/seti_orphan_planets_050224.html.
  2. Lloyd, Robin (18 April 2001). Free-Floating Planets – British Team Restakes Dubious Claim. Space.com, 18 April 2001. Retrieved on 5 February 2009 from http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/astronomy/free_floaters_010403-1.html. Template:Webarchive
  3. Author unknown (18 April 2001). Orphan 'planet' findings challenged by new model. NASA Astrobiology, 18 April 2001. Retrieved on 5 February 2009 from "Archived copy". https://web.archive.org/web/20090322091340/http://astrobiology.arc.nasa.gov/news/expandnews.cfm?id=783. Retrieved on 9 February 2009. .
  4. Neil deGrasse Tyson in Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey as referred to by National Geographic
  5. Luhman, Kevin L. (10 February 2005). "Spitzer Identification of the Least Massive Known Brown Dwarf with a Circumstellar Disk". Astrophysical Journal Letters 620 (1): L51-L54. doi:10.1086/428613. Bibcode2005ApJ...620L..51L. 
  6. Zapatero Osorio, M. R. (6 October 2000). "Discovery of Young, Isolated Planetary Mass Objects in the σ Orionis Star Cluster". Science 290: 103. doi:10.1126/science.290.5489.103. Bibcode2000Sci...290..103Z. 
  7. Luhman, Kevin L. (10 December 2005). "Discovery of a Planetary-Mass Brown Dwarf with a Circumstellar Disk". Astrophysical Journal Letters 635: 93L. doi:10.1086/498868. Bibcode2005ApJ...635L..93L. 
  8. Marsh, Kenneth A. (1 February 2010). "A Young Planetary-Mass Object in the ρ Oph Cloud Core". Astrophysical Journal Letters 709: L158. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/709/2/L158. Bibcode2010ApJ...709L.158M. 
  9. Delorme, Philippe (25 September 2012). "CFBDSIR2149-0403: a 4-7 Jupiter-mass free-floating planet in the young moving group AB Doradus?". Astronomy & Astrophysics 548A: 26. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219984. Bibcode2012A&A...548A..26D. 
  10. Liu, Michael C. (10 November 2013). "The Extremely Red, Young L Dwarf PSO J318.5338-22.8603: A Free-floating Planetary-mass Analog to Directly Imaged Young Gas-giant Planets". Astrophysical Journal Letters 777 (1): L20. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/777/2/L20. Bibcode2013ApJ...777L..20L. 
  11. Gagné, Jonathan (10 March 2014). "BANYAN. II. Very Low Mass and Substellar Candidate Members to Nearby, Young Kinematic Groups with Previously Known Signs of Youth". Astrophysical Journal 783: 121. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/783/2/121. Bibcode2014ApJ...783..121G. 
  12. Schneider, Adam C. (9 January 2014). "Discovery of the Young L Dwarf WISE J174102.78-464225.5". Astronomical Journal 147: 34. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/147/2/34. Bibcode2014AJ....147...34S. 
  13. Luhman, Kevin L. (10 May 2014). "Discovery of a ~250 K Brown Dwarf at 2 pc from the Sun". Astrophysical Journal Letters 786: L18. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/786/2/L18. Bibcode2014ApJ...786L..18L. 
  14. Gagné, Jonathan (10 April 2014). "The Coolest Isolated Brown Dwarf Candidate Member of TWA". Astrophysical Journal Letters 785 (1): L14. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/785/1/L14. Bibcode2014ApJ...785L..14G. 
  15. Liu, Michael C. (9 December 2016). "The Hawaii Infrared Parallax Program. II. Young Ultracool Field Dwarfs". Astrophysical Journal 833: 96. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/833/1/96. Bibcode2016ApJ...833...96L. 
  16. Gagné, Jonathan (1 September 2014). "SIMP J2154-1055: A New Low-gravity L4β Brown Dwarf Candidate Member of the Argus Association". Astrophysical Journal Letters 792: L17. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/792/1/L17. Bibcode2014ApJ...792L..17G. 
  17. Gagné, Jonathan (20 July 2015). "SDSS J111010.01+011613.1: A New Planetary-mass T Dwarf Member of the AB Doradus Moving Group". Astrophysical Journal Letters 808: L20. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/808/1/L20. Bibcode2015ApJ...808L..20G. 
  18. Kellogg, Kendra (11 April 2016). "The Nearest Isolated Member of the TW Hydrae Association is a Giant Planet Analog". Astrophysical Journal Letters 821 (1): L15. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/821/1/L15. Bibcode2016ApJ...821L..15K. 
  19. Schneider, Adam C. (21 April 2016). "WISEA J114724.10-204021.3: A Free-floating Planetary Mass Member of the TW Hya Association". Astrophysical Journal Letters 822 (1): L1. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/822/1/L1. Bibcode2016ApJ...822L...1S. 

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