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Distance from the Solar System
Distance Lying within
the habitable zone
All
< 10 light-years 0 (2?) 2 systems
< 20 light-years 6 15
< 30 light-years 8 22
< 40 light-years 10 24
< 50 light-years 11 31

Exoplanets candidates are proposed and unconfirmed planets. There is often scientific and amateur interest in the discoveries of terrestrial planets, which are composed primarily of silicates and/or metals, within the habitable zone of a star system. In September 2012, the discovery of two planets orbiting Gliese 163[1] was announced.[2][3] One of the planets, Gliese 163 c, about 6.9 times the mass of Earth and somewhat hotter, was considered to be within the habitable zone, but is probably not terrestrial.[2][3] In May 2016, the finding of three earth-like planets of ultracool dwarf TRAPPIST-1 has been released.

Exoplanet candidatesEdit

The following table gives a list of exoplanets at a distance of up to 50 light-years from the Solar System, ordered by increasing distance.[4][5][6] Note: There is no scientific consensus about terrestrial composition of most of the planets on this list. Sources in the "Main source" column confirm the possibility of terrestrial composition. Further, the composition of the atmosphere and atmospheric pressure of exoplanets is also unknown, therefore surface temperatures are only estimates based on computer models and expert opinions.

Name Image (artist's concept) M R g Ts a e [s] D
Proxima Centauri b≥1.27 ~1.1 Template:Free 0.05<0.35 [7]4.22
Ross 128 b ≥1.40 11.03
Wolf 1061b ≥1.36≥1.44 13.8
Wolf 1061c ≥4.3≥1.64 [8] 13.8
Wolf 1061d ≥5.21≥2.04 13.8
Gliese 876 d[9]6.8 Template:Bad[10] 0.0210.21[11]15
Gliese 682 b ≥2 [12]
[13]
[8]
16
Gliese 832 c ≥5.4 Template:Won 0.162 0.03 [14][15]16.16
82 G. Eridani b ≥2.7 Template:Bad 0.1207 0[5]19.71
82 G. Eridani c ≥2.4 Template:Bad 0.2036 0 [5]19.71
82 G. Eridani d ≥4.8 Template:Bad 0.3499 0[5]19.71
Gliese 581 e≥1.7 0.0290[16]20
Gliese 581 c [17]≥5.6 0.0720[16]20
Gliese 581 d [18]≥5.6 2.34[19] 1.27[19]Template:Free[19] 0.2180[16]20
HD 219134 b 4.5 1.6 Template:Bad [20] 21
Gliese 667C b 6.30 1.44 Template:Bad 0.05 0.09 [19] 22
Gliese 667C c[21][22] 3.8 1.32 Template:Won 0.13 0.34 [19] 22
61 Virginis b[23]≥5.1 0.0500.12[24]28
HD 85512 b[25]≥3.6 1.74[19]1.33[19] Template:Won 0.260.11[26]36
GJ 180 b ≥2.3 Template:Won [12][14] 38
TRAPPIST-1b [27]39.5
TRAPPIST-1c [27]39.5
TRAPPIST-1d [27]39.5
TRAPPIST-1e [27]39.5
TRAPPIST-1f [27]39.5
TRAPPIST-1g [27]39.5
TRAPPIST-1h [27]39.5
55 Cancri e (Janssen)8.6 0.0160.17[28]40
HD 40307 b[29] ≥4.2 0.0470.2[29]42
HD 40307 c[29] ≥6.8 0.0810.06[29]42
HD 40307 d [30]≥9.2 0.1340.07[29]42
HD 40307 e ≥3.5 0.1886 0.15 [6]42
HD 40307 f ≥5.2 Template:Bad 0.247 0.02 [6]42
HD 40307 g ≥7.1 Template:Won 0.600 0.29[6]42

ReferencesEdit

  1. Staff (September 20, 2012). "LHS 188 -- High proper-motion Star". Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg(Strasbourg astronomical Data Center). http://simbad.u-strasbg.fr/simbad/sim-id?Ident=HIP+19394. Retrieved on September 20, 2012. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Méndez, Abel (August 29, 2012). "A Hot Potential Habitable Exoplanet around Gliese 163". University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo (Planetary Habitability Laboratory). http://phl.upr.edu/press-releases/ahotpotentialhabitableexoplanetaroundgliese163. Retrieved on September 20, 2012. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Redd, Nola Taylor (September 20, 2012). "Newfound Alien Planet a Top Contender to Host Life". Space.com. http://www.space.com/17684-alien-planet-gliese-163c-extraterrestrial-life.html. Retrieved on September 20, 2012. 
  4. Pepe, F.; Lovis, C.; Ségransan, D.; Benz, W.; Bouchy, F.; Dumusque, X.; Mayor, M.; Queloz, M.; et al. (2011), "The HARPS search for Earth-like planets in the habitable zone: I – Very low-mass planets around HD20794, HD85512 and HD192310", Astronomy & Astrophysics 534: A58, doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201117055 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Schneider, Jean, "Star: HD 20794", Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia (Paris Observatory), http://exoplanet.eu/star.php?st=HD+20794, retrieved on 5 December 2011 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Tuomi, Anglada-Escude, Gerlach, Jones, Reiners, Rivera, Vogt, Butler, Mikko, Guillem, Enrico, Hugh R. R., Ansgar, Eugenio J., Steven S., R. Paul; Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Gerlach, Enrico; Jones, Hugh R. R.; Reiners, Ansgar; Rivera, Eugenio J.; Vogt, Steven S.; Paul Butler, R. (2012). "Habitable-zone super-Earth candidate in a six-planet system around the K2.5V star HD 40307". Astronomy & Astrophysics 549: A48. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201220268. Bibcode2013A&A...549A..48T. 
  7. Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Amado, Pedro J.; Barnes, John; Berdiñas, Zaira M.; Butler, R. Paul; Coleman, Gavin A. L.; de la Cueva, Ignacio; Dreizler, Stefan; et al. (25 August 2016). "A terrestrial planet candidate in a temperate orbit around Proxima Centauri" (in en). Nature 536 (7617): 437–440. doi:10.1038/nature19106. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 27558064. Bibcode2016Natur.536..437A. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v536/n7617/full/nature19106.html. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 http://phl.upr.edu/projects/habitable-exoplanets-catalog/data
  9. Fogg, M. J.; Nelson, R. P. (2005). "Oligarchic and giant impact growth of terrestrial planets in the presence of gas giant planet migration". Astronomy and Astrophysics 441 (2): 791–806. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20053453. Bibcode2005A&A...441..791F. http://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/full/2005/38/aa3453-05/aa3453-05.html. 
  10. Rivera, E.; et al (2005). "A ~7.5 M⊕ Planet Orbiting the Nearby Star, GJ 876". The Astrophysical Journal 634 (1): 625–640. doi:10.1086/491669. Bibcode2005ApJ...634..625R. 
  11. Eugenio J. Rivera, Gregory Laughlin, R. Paul Butler, Steven S. Vogt, Nader Haghighipour, Stefano Meschiari (2010). "The Lick-Carnegie Exoplanet Survey: A Uranus-mass Fourth Planet for GJ 876 in an Extrasolar Laplace Configuration".
  12. 12.0 12.1 Tuomi, Mikko; Jones, Hugh R. A.; Barnes, John R.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Jenkins, James S. (2014). "Bayesian search for low-mass planets around nearby M dwarfs. Estimates for occurrence rate based on global detectability statistics". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 441 (2): 1545–1569. doi:10.1093/mnras/stu358. Bibcode2014MNRAS.441.1545T. 
  13. http://www.hpcf.upr.edu/~abel/phl/tuomi/hec_orbit_GJ_682_b.png
  14. 14.0 14.1 "HEC: Data of Potentially Habitable Worlds - Planetary Habitability Laboratory @ UPR Arecibo". http://phl.upr.edu/projects/habitable-exoplanets-catalog/data. Retrieved on 3 October 2015. 
  15. "A Nearby Super-Earth with the Right Temperature but Extreme Seasons - Planetary Habitability Laboratory @ UPR Arecibo". http://phl.upr.edu/press-releases/gliese832. Retrieved on 3 October 2015. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Vogt, S. S. (2010). "The Lick-Carnegie Exoplanet Survey: A 3.1 M_Earth Planet in the Habitable Zone of the Nearby M3V Star Gliese 581". The Astrophysical Journal 723: 954–965. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/723/1/954. Bibcode2010ApJ...723..954V. 
  17. Valencia; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; O'Connell, Richard J. (2006). "Radius and Structure Models of the First Super-Earth Planet". The Astrophysical Journal 656 (1): 545–551. doi:10.1086/509800. Bibcode2007ApJ...656..545V. 
  18. von Bloh, W.; Bounama, C.; Cuntz, M.; Franck, S. (2007). "The Habitability of Super-Earths in Gliese 581". Astronomy & Astrophysics 476 (3): 1365–1371. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20077939. Bibcode2007A&A...476.1365V. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 The Habitable Exoplanets Catalog. The values are just the best estimates and are subject to change.
  20. http://phys.org/news/2015-07-astronomers-star-super-earths.html
  21. Bonfils; Delfosse; Udry; Forveille; Mayor; Perrier; Bouchy; Gillon; et al. (2011). "The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets XXXI. The M-dwarf sample". Astronomy 549: A109. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201014704. Bibcode2013A&A...549A.109B. 
  22. "A Potential Habitable Exoplanet in a Nearby Triple Star System - Planetary Habitability Laboratory @ UPR Arecibo". http://phl.upr.edu/press-releases/apotentialhabitableexoplanetinanearbytriplestarsystem. Retrieved on 3 October 2015. 
  23. Vogt, Steven; Wittenmyer; Paul Butler; Simon O'Toole; Henry; Rivera; Stefano Meschiari; Gregory Laughlin; et al. (2009). "A Super-Earth and two Neptunes Orbiting the Nearby Sun-like star 61 Virginis". The Astrophysical Journal 708: 1366–1375. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/708/2/1366. Bibcode2010ApJ...708.1366V. 
  24. Vogt, Steven (2009). \"A Super-Earth and two Neptunes Orbiting the Nearby Sun-like star 61 Virginis
  25. Kaltenegger, L; Udry, S; Pepe, F (2011). A Habitable Planet around HD 85512?. 1108. pp. 3561. Bibcode2011arXiv1108.3561K. 
  26. Kaltenegger, L.; Udry, S.; Pepe, F. (2011). A Habitable Planet around HD 85512?
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 27.6 Gillon, M; Triaud, AH; Demory, BO; Jehin, E; Agol, E; Deck, KM; Lederer, SM; de Wit, J; et al.. "Seven temperate terrestrial planets around the nearby ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1" (PDF). Nature 542: 456–460. doi:10.1038/nature21360. PMID 28230125. PMC: 5330437. Bibcode2017Natur.542..456G. http://www.eso.org/public/archives/releases/sciencepapers/eso1706/eso1706a.pdf. 
  28. Rebekah; et al (2010). "Radial velocity planets de-aliased. A new, short period for Super-Earth 55 Cnc e". The Astrophysical Journal 722: 937–953. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/722/1/937. Bibcode2010ApJ...722..937D. 
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 M. Mayor; S. Udry; C. Lovis; F. Pepe; D. Queloz; W. Benz; J.-L. Bertaux; F. Bouchy; et al. (2009). "The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XIII. A planetary system with 3 Super-Earths (4.2, 6.9, & 9.2 Earth masses)". Astronomy and Astrophysics 493 (2): 639–644. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200810451. Bibcode2009A&A...493..639M. 
  30. Barnes, R., Jackson, B., Raymond, S., West, A., Greenberg, R. (2009). "The HD 40307 Planetary System: Super-Earths or Mini-Neptunes?". The Astrophysical Journal 695 (2): 1006–1011. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/695/2/1006. Bibcode2009ApJ...695.1006B. 

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